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Logo of Phnom Penh Post newspaper Phnom Penh Post - Cambodia After the Khmer Rouge lifts veil of secrecy surrounding decade of Vietnamese military occup

Cambodia After the Khmer Rouge lifts veil of secrecy surrounding decade of Vietnamese military occup

The year is 1979 and Phnom Penh has just issued a warning: Cambodia's elite are blinded

by wealth. Property is collected for their use and the use of their families. Pleasure-seeking

abandonment has led to rape and violations against women. The elite refuse to listen

to the masses and are scornful, preferring to show off their better positions and


The Vietnamese are in charge and Hanoi is not exactly pleased with their Cambodian

charges tasked with rebuilding the country from scratch, after sending 150,000 troops

across the border.

Rarely does a book grace the shelves which unflinchingly challenges accepted thinking

about Cambodia's violent past. But Cambodia After the Khmer Rouge is just such a


It begins in the 1950s with a young Norodom Sihanouk making his mark on Cambodia's

political landscape.

Adored by peasants but blamed for "condoning corruption and political intimidation"

in the cities, Sihanouk was voted out of power by a secret ballot in the National

Assembly in 1970.

He lost, 89 to 3 and Lon Nol's coup was in the making, pleasing the US while heralding

the civil war, eventual victory for the Chinese-backed Khmer Rouge and a scale of

genocide not seen since World War II.

As history tells us, Vietnam began liberating Cambodia from Pol Pot's ubiquitous

thugs in late 1978. This is where Gottesman stamps his credentials on a period few

authors have dared to touch.

With the precision of a combat surgeon, he canters through occupation, an era cloaked

by institutionalised secrecy in a country banished to the nether regions of global


One lid after the other is lifted on the inner workings of Hanoi's tutelage, Phnom

Penh's leadership, their rivalries and eventually Hun Sen's rise from a Vietnamese

"experiment" to the power of one.

Along the way there's the first Khmer Rouge trial, conducted while the new regime

was attempting to "co-opt" former leaders of the ultra-Maoists into a new

government. Pol Pot's soldiers were asked to apologise.

Gottesman also notes how the spiritual head of Cambodia's Cham Muslims, the mufti

Mat Ly, was given a prominent role by the Khmer Rouge during their reign.

Importantly, the author also counters arguments of Vietnamese benevolence in the

wake of Pol Pot's barbarity. Mandatory rice exports to Vietnam created starvation

in the Cambodian countryside.

But politically, Cambodia was again a strategic player, this time in fending off

Chinese expansionism - that's what really mattered, and neither master nor apprentice

shied in bullying the local Chinese.

As masters, the Vietnamese edited a new constitution beyond any recognition of its

Cambodian authors. Hanoi controlled the currency, monopolised trade and banned the

teaching of English and French. Cambodians were less than impressed, but Hanoi had

the upper hand.

This became apparent when Prime Minister Pen Sovan, whose independent attitudes had

consistently upset his controllers, was arrested by Vietnamese troops in late 1981.

Hun Sen read the charges.

Hanoi-friendly Chan Si took the reigns but died three years later amid unsubstantiated

rumours of foul play. Hun Sen ascended to the premiership early the following year.

Any reader with a basic knowledge of contemporary Cambodia should also expect to

be lulled into a false sense of time. The 1980s were not always unlike the decade

before or after.

Chronic paranoia, attempts to banish urban populations and forced labour camps at

the K5 Thai-border sites resonate with a familiar contempt to Pol Pot's lunatic concepts

of the 1970s.

And Gottesman's portrayal of a government filled with self-serving, corrupt officials

seeking patronage in a feudal-like state mimics Cambodia of the 1990s and present


The familiar rings with past and present does serve notice on academics, journalists

and government ministers who hold the 1991-93 United Nations Transitional Authority

(UNTAC) responsible for Cambodia's present day ills.

But the days of UNTAC are in the future, and Gottesman's work is solidly crafted

in the 1980s when Cambodia was not immune to illegal logging, graft, drugs, prostitution,

shady businessman and impunity.

This escalated by the mid-1980s as Hanoi's resolve for imposing its communist agenda

over Cambodia began waning as foreign assistance, primarily Russian, started to evaporate.

There was also a growing realisation east of the border that Khmer culture and communism

may not be an ideal fit, despite a helping hand from Pol Pot, who had already removed

all the capitalists.

And, a swift crackdown on pro-democracy advocates by Cambodian authorities amid the

Soviet Union's collapse had all the hallmarks of a dictatorship entrenched - one

that was not always out of step with Hanoi's wishes.

Throughout Vietnamese occupation, Cambodia was a reclusive state that ranked alongside

North Korea, and a lack of any public information on the occupation forced the author

to rely on firsthand accounts and rare internal documents for primary sourcing.

The author argues what the Vietnamese left behind was a system devoid of ideology,

with one political party that had seized state assets and neatly bound them by a

web of well-established personal relations with Hun Sen at the helm.

By the 1990s, in Gottesman's words, this had resulted in powerful patrons with little

incentive to punish their own loyalists. "As long as the money flows, officials

act with impunity - engaging in theft, extortion or worse."

Frustratingly, however, too little attention is given to opposition inside Vietnam

to Hanoi's invasion plans for Cambodia, and the arrival of UNTAC is treated more

as an afterthought. But his account of what happened in between is gripping, and

if you would like to know why in 2004 marijuana costs about the same as exotic computer

software, this book is a good start.

Gottesman has done a very clever job.

Book Review

Cambodia After the Khmer Rouge: Inside the Politics of Nation Building

Evan R. Gotatesman; 464 pages, Yale University Press, August 2002.

Available from Monument Books




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