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'Internal affairs'

T he winning side of the government left no doubt of how it thought the world should

view the biggest event of 1997 - the July explosion of Cambodia's experiment with

democracy. But like it or not, the year's other crises and climaxes also earned Cambodia

worldwide scrutiny and headlines: a deadly grenade attack; a fatal plane crash; and

the show trial and interview of Brother No.1. The Post reviews the year that Pol

Pot said 'My conscience is clear', Prince Ranariddh said 'It appears my generals

were right', and Hun Sen said 'I'm not NATO, I don't need arms reduction'.

January

The first week of 1997 highlights the differences between the two major parties

in the coalition government. The CPP organizes a massive celebration on January 7

to commemorate the ousting of the Khmer Rouge regime in 1979. Funcinpec, many of

whose members do not recognize the holiday, focuses their attention instead on commemorating

the combatants and civilians who had died over the past two decades resisting the

Vietnamese-backed regime in Phnom Penh.

An international trafficking ring is busted by Cambodian Interpol with the arrest

of four ethnic Chinese traffickers along with 83 illegal Chinese immigrants. However,

Interpol chief General M Ly Roun Skadavy says that other criminal syndicates are

operating in Cambodia. Officials admit that as many as 10,000 Chinese illegals may

be holed up in the capital.

Skadavy also says that Sino-Khmer mafia are smuggling Cambodian children to the West

to supply a black market in internal organs.

Agriculture Minister Tao Seng Huor says on Jan 6 that the new ban on log exports

is a success, but concedes that the government does not have full control over the

country's dwindling forests.

Strikes at garment factories continue into the new year. Workers at five factories

hold demonstrations and walk-outs demanding better pay and work-place conditions.

Khmer Nation Party leader Sam Rainsy continues to play a key role in organizing the

demonstrations. One protest turns ugly on Jan 4 when workers from the Tack Fat factory

try to march on the National Assembly. Police break up the demonstration with water

cannons. KNP officials and strikers claim they were punched and manhandled by police.

Co-Minister of Interior Sar Kheng, in a foreboding comment on things to come, speaks

to the Post about tensions between the coalition partners: "We have to be very

careful, we fought each other in the past, but finally we formed a coalition government.

If we fight each other again, there will be no winner and no loser."

The inaugural Tiger Phnom Penh International Marathon is held on Jan 12. Neals Strik

of the Netherlands finishes first. The event includes more than 150 entrants from

11 nations, including more than 80 disabled runners.

Authorities in Vietnam seize 6.3 tonnes of Cambodian-grown cannabis off a freighter

in Ho Chi Minh city on Jan 15.

The US-funded Cambodian Genocide Project announces that it had collected enough evidence

to try and convict members of the Khmer Rouge politburo for crimes against humanity

committed during the 1975-1979 Pol Pot regime.

The National Assembly passes, with few dissenting votes, the "First Socioeconomic

Development Plan, 1996-2000".

Son Sann, one of the Kingdom's most prominent elder statesmen, retires quietly from

the National Assembly in mid-January after a high-profile political career spanning

five decades.

Officials from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries say that the country's

fish stocks are under threat due to mismanagement and illegal fish exports.

The Cambodian People's Party (CPP) holds a party congress Jan 24-27. The event, which

takes place in an unprecedented level of openness, sees several delegates boldly

question the behavior of Second Prime Minister Hun Sen, particularly over his expensive

rural development programs and his outspoken political style. Hun Sen denies that

he was engaging in "demagogy", a CPP general urges the Prime Minister to

work more with his party and one of Hun Sen's staunchest political supporters, Kun

Kim, is rejected in his bid for membership on the CPP's Central Committee.

An exhibition of Khmer art, entitled "Angkor and Ten Centuries of Khmer Art"

opens in Paris on Jan 31 at the National Galleries of the Grand Palais. Queen Monineath

Sihanouk and French President Jacques Chirac are in attendance.

Hun Sen makes a four-day official visit to Rangoon in an effort to strengthen ties

between Cambodia and Myanmar. The trip is condemned by opposition leader Sam Rainsy

as "an insult against democracy movements".

At the suggestion of Funcinpec, the National United Front (NUF) is established with

the Khmer Nation Party, Son Sann's Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party and the Khmer

Neutral Party joining in the alliance. "If you are in the government, you must

side with the government. When you form an alliance with the opposition, what does

it mean?" complains Secretary of State for Information Khieu Kanharith (CPP).

The Ministry of Health and the WHO kick off a nationwide vaccination campaign against

poliomyelitis on Jan 28. Officials hope that the campaign will lead to the full eradication

of the disease in the Kingdom.

Ten tonnes of looted Angkorian artifacts - the largest shipment ever discovered -

are seized by Siem Reap officials on Jan 30. The artifacts are taken from a truck

manned by soldiers, including bodyguards of the Siem Reap military commander General

Khan Savoeun. Savoeun denies any involvement in the heist.

February

Cambodian human rights worker Chan Sastra is one of four UN officials killed by

Hutus near the Zairean border in Rwanda on Feb 4.

An increase in the number of death threats against editors and journalists prompts

the League of Cambodian Journalists and the Khmer Journalists Association to call

for action by the government to find the culprits and for newspapers to tone down

their attacks against the Royal family.

Months of tension between CPP and Funcinpec-aligned soldiers in Battambang blow up

with scattered fighting taking place between the two forces. Estimates of the number

of casualties vary. NGO sources say as many as 21 soldiers may have been killed in

the fighting.

Tensions escalate further when around 600 BLDP-aligned, pro-Royalist forces from

Nimith and Thmar Pouk move to within 35km of Battambang. The troops, dubbed "Blue

Khmer", wore bright blue bandannas to distinguish themselves from troops loyal

to the CPP.

Cambodia and South Korea sign investment and technical cooperation accords Feb 10.

The keystone to Pochentong International airport's $100 million new terminal is laid

on Feb 14. The project is an undertaking of Societe Concessionaire de l'Aeroport,

a Franco-Malaysian civil aviation engineering firm.

Srun Vong Vannak, a KNP bodyguard, is arrested Feb 14 for alleged involvement in

the murder of Hun Sen's brother-in-law, Kov Samuth.

Battambang's governor, deputy governor and two military commanders are recalled to

Phnom Penh by order of the two PMs on Feb 16. Relieved of their positions were Ung

Samy, the CPP governor, Serey Kosal, Funcinpec first deputy governor, as well as

Hul Savoan and Kla Chan Sovanarith, the parties' respective military commanders.

Indonesian President Suharto arrives in Phnom Penh on Feb 17 for an official state

visit, his first to Cambodia in more than 30 years.

Funcinpec Generals Nhek Bun Chhay and Khan Savoeun are reported to have sought direct

contact with Khmer Rouge General Ta Mok on Feb 18. There are conflicting reports

on the purposes of the meeting with speculation that the move was intended to secure

the freedom of 15 mainly Funcinpec officials who did not return from an earlier trip

to the KR-controlled area near Anlong Veng.

Hun Sen and Ranariddh sign orders preventing "illegal troop movements"

on Feb 26. King Norodom Sihanouk leaves the country for China, with a statement in

his Palace Bulletin - released just hours after his departure - saying that the Monarch

is considering abdicating.

The National United Front (NUF) holds its official launch on Feb 27. The CPP accuses

Funcinpec of interfering in its internal affairs after First Prime Minister Norodom

Ranariddh says he will send a copy of the NUF platform to CPP President Chea Sim.

Frenchman Amedee Hennion is arrested in Phnom Penh on Feb 28 and accused of paedophilia.

March

On Mar 1 Funcinpec criticizes the CPP's response to the establishment of NUF,

saying that the reaction is unreasonable.

Srun Vong Vannak, Prum Mean Rith and Sos Kasem appear in court Mar 3 accused in the

death of Kov Samuth. Police say the three men confessed to the crime. Tioulong Saumoura,

wife of KNP leader Sam Rainsy, says the three were pressured by police to confess

in order to damage the party.

Canadian-German Manfred Horst Albert is arrested on Mar 4 for allegedly engaging

in paedophilia. Police pledge an on-going crackdown on child sex crimes.

On Mar 5 the two PMs try to make amends at a luncheon with the entire Council of

Ministers at a Phnom Penh restaurant. The PMs hug each other and pledge to cooperate.

Tensions increase in the area around the KR-controled Anlong Veng area as the fate

of 15 Funcinpec negotiators led by Siem Reap deputy governor Hem Bun Heng remains

a mystery. RCAF increases troop strength in Siem Reap province as a means of pressuring

the Khmer Rouge.

Statements by King Norodom Sihanouk that he wants to abdicate the throne draw fire

from Hun Sen who says if the King does abdicate then the elections must be postponed,

and suggests that Royals should be banned from politics.

Peace marchers led by the Venerable Maha Ghosananda begin the Dhammayietra VI on

Mar 20 in Battambang, heading for Pailin. The peace march arrives in Pailin Mar 25.

The Venerable blesses former Khmer Rouge Foreign Minister Ieng Sary, sprinkling water

from a plastic bottle on his hands, but moves on without paying him special attention.

Funcinpec and the CPP agree on Mar 25 that elections will be held in November 1998.

A peaceful, legal protest led by KNP leader Sam Rainsy is attacked by terrorists

who throw four grenades at the event on Mar 30 in front of the National Assembly.

At least 16 people are killed and over 100 wounded. Rainsy accuses Hun Sen of being

behind the attack. Ranariddh says that he cannot trust the Interior Ministry to investigate

properly.

The First Southeast Asian Biennial Film Festival begins on the evening of Mar 30

with a Gala Dinner and film screening at the Royal Palace.

April

In response to the Mar 30 grenade attack, 42 Funcinpec and BLDP MPs send a letter

to UN Sec-Gen Kofi Annan on Apr 2 requesting "appropriate intervention"

by the UN in Cambodian affairs "to address the situation". The letter includes

the comment: "The biggest human rights abuser is the most powerful man in the

country."

Two containers with 6 tonnes of marijuana are seized in Sihanoukville on Apr 2. Accusations

fly back and forth between Funcinpec and CPP officials over who was involved in the

drug deal.

On Apr 3 Hun Sen denies involvement in the grenade attack and says the protest organizers

should be investigated.

Chamber of Commerce President Teng Boon Ma shoots out the tire of a Royal Air Cambodge

plane on the tarmac at Pochentong airport on Apr 7. Boon Ma says he was upset about

poor service.

Co-Minister of Interior You Hockry says on Apr 9 that all demonstrations will be

banned. Confusion arises as Sar Kheng later denies that any such ban is in place.

In response to Ranariddh's request that the UN should conduct an investigation into

the Mar 30 grenade attack, Hun Sen says on April 10 "The essence of power is

that when you talk you are listened to and respected," adding that Ranariddh

should resign if he doesn't trust a government ministry.

RCAF is ordered on Apr 13 to halt its dry season advance on Anlong Veng.

Funcinpec MP and Minister of State Ung Phan says on Apr 15 that he is splitting from

Ranariddh and would form a rival Funcinpec bloc. He accuses Ranariddh of "blunders"

which threatened to lead Cambodia to "great disaster".

Exiled Prince Norodom Sirivudh, saying he was prepared to go to jail, tries to return

to Cambodia on Apr 15 but is prevented from boarding a Dragonair flight in Hongkong.

Siem Reap Governor Toan Chay announces on Apr 17 that he will join Ung Phan in his

efforts to set up a new Funcinpec party. MP and Banteay Meanchey governor Duong Khem

says that he will join too.

Ranariddh accuses Hun Sen on Apr 18 of masterminding the Funcinpec split and interfering

in his party's internal affairs.

On Apr 19 Hun Sen invites the press corps to his heavily-guarded Takhmau residence

for a press conference where he announces his support for Ung Phan and says that

he has the names of 11 other Funcinpec MPs who will join Phan.

Former Khmer Rouge commanders of the Democratic National United Movement (DNUM) say

they will not field candidates for the 1998 elections. However, one official says

that if Funcinpec wins the election and is prevented from taking power, DNUM would

use its military force to support the victor.

Three officials from the US Federal Bureau of Investigation arrive in Phnom Penh

to assist with the investigation into the Mar 30 grenade attack.

King Sihanouk says in a statement dated Apr 25 from Beijing that he cannot interfere

in the political crisis in Phnom Penh and that he would no longer talk about abdication.

Cambodia's national football team ties Indonesia 1-1 in an Asian Group Five qualifying

match at Phnom Penh's Olympic Stadium on Apr 27.

Some 600 government, provincial, military and police officials meet at the Chatomuk

Theatre on Apr 29 to review the country's security and political situation. The meeting

is convened by the Joint Commission for Abnormal Conflict Resolution, made up of

the Ministers of Interior and Defense, and the chiefs of the Royal Cambodian Armed

Forces (RCAF) and the National Police.

May

A local television station in Sihanouk-ville is attacked with AK47s and B40 rockets

on May 4. One man - TVK employee Pich Hem - dies in the attack.

Hun Sen and Ranariddh embrace each other at a May 7 Council of Ministers meeting

and agree to tone down their war of words. Less than a day later Ranariddh attacks

Hun Sen in a speech in Siem Reap warning that Hun Sen would "bring a communist

dictatorship" if elected.

National Police deputy director Yeng Marady says on May 12 that Hun Sen bodyguards

would be interviewed in relation to the investigation of the Mar 30 grenade attack.

"I'm not NATO, I don't need arms reduction," says Hun Sen on May 12 in

response to suggestions by parliamentarians that he reduce his bodyguard contingent.

Khieu Samphan, on KR radio from Anlong Veng on May 21, pledges his new National Solidarity

Party's support for the Funcinpec-initiated NUF.

Ranariddh tells reporters on May 23 that if Khieu Samphan gets a Royal amnesty and

wants to join the NUF, "I don't have any choice but to simply say yes".

A container load of weapons labeled "spare parts" and addressed to Prince

Norodom Ranariddh is seized at the port of Sihanoukville on May 25. The 78 cases

of armaments include rocket launchers, rifles, pistols and ammunition.

An alleged assassination attempt on Hun Sen takes place on May 27 when a single bullet

is fired at the premier's motorcade near Takhmau. One bodyguard is injured when the

bullet pierces his helmet.

The Ministry of Interior commission to investigate the Mar 30 grenade attack releases

on May 28 three composite sketches - drawn by FBI artists - of individuals wanted

for questioning.

CMAC detonates a series of explosive devices on May 30, sending an already edgy Phnom

Penh into a state of near panic. Shops close hurriedly and schools send students

home.

ASEAN foreign ministers decide on May 31 to allow Cambodia to join the regional organization

at its upcoming annual meeting on July 23.

June

Nhek Bun Chhay claims a deal has been struck for KR chiefs Pol Pot, Ta Mok, and

Son Sen to go into exile, clearing the way for Khieu Samphan to defect to the government.

A June 5 statement from the Committee for Cooperation on Cambodia affirms the non-partisan

nature of the aid groups and urges the government and political parties to respect

NGOs' neutrality.

King Sihanouk, from Beijing on June 9, says he will never grant amnesties to Pol

Pot and Ta Mok.

Khmer Rouge nominal leader Khieu Samphan accuses Son Sen of treason in a June 11

KR radio broadcast. Samphan says Sen and his wife Yun Yat have been arrested. It

is later learned that the two, along with at least 10 family members, had been executed

June 10 on the orders of Pol Pot.

KR radio falls silent on June 13. Officials in Phnom Penh claim reports of fighting

in Anlong Veng.

Ranariddh says June 16 that Pol Pot should be caught dead or alive within two days,

citing information from General Nhek Bun Chhay. In a surprise revelation, Ranariddh

says he met with Khieu Samphan three weeks prior, but refuses to provide details.

Hun Sen says that any negotiations with Khieu Samphan are illegal.

After a four-day silence, KR radio begins broadcasting again on June 17, delivering

an unprecedented denouncement of Pol Pot as a traitor.

A 90-minute gun battle erupts between bodyguards loyal to Prince Ranariddh and National

Police Chief Hok Lundy on Norodom Boulevard on the night of June 17. At least 14

explosions from the use of RPGs are heard; one shell explodes in the garden of the

American Ambassador Ken Quinn's house. Two Funcinpec guards are killed and three

people injured. Both sides blame the other for the incident.

Funcinpec General Nhek Bun Chhay claims on June 22 that he has personally seen Pol

Pot in Anlong Veng where he was under house arrest.

Ranariddh says he wants to send one or two journalists to Anlong Veng to take pictures

of Pol Pot.

July

Prince Ranariddh leaves Cambodia on July 4 at the advice of his military advisors

("It appears my generals were right" he says later). Two days of fighting

between forces loyal to the respective Prime Ministers rock Phnom Penh on July 5-6.

Casualty figures vary widely. A police source tells Reuters that 58 were killed during

the fighting and as many as 200 wounded. Forces loyal to General Nhek Bun Chhay are

driven from the city. Thousands of civilians flee the city in panic. Funcinpec is

left in total disarray.

Hun Sen says the military action was necessary to prevent a coup d'état by

Ranariddh. Ranariddh says from abroad that he has been ousted by a Hun Sen-led coup

d'état. CPP-aligned troops take control of Siem Reap and Battambang. Funcinpec

troops are either disarmed or head for the bush.

Widespread looting by military and police takes place in Phnom Penh on July 7. Many

Funcinpec officials go into hiding. Funcinpec Secretary of State for Interior Ho

Sok is arrested by CPP troops, taken to the Ministry of Interior and executed. Other

officials are feared dead.

Thousands of expatriates leave Phnom Penh on emergency flights organized by Malaysia,

Thailand, Australia, Singapore and the Philippines on July 8-10. Human rights officials

escort scores of political figures and family members fearing for their lives to

the airport for evacuation abroad.

ASEAN decides on July 10 to postpone indefinitely Cambodia's entry into the regional

organization. The US announces a 30-day suspension of its foreign aid program.

King Sihanouk says from Beijing on July 12 "I cannot present myself as a 'judge'

with regard to a 'coup' or 'non-coup d'état'."

Funcinpec remnants still in Cambodia nominate Ung Huot on July 16 to replace Ranariddh

as First Prime Minister.

Indonesian Foreign Minister Ali Alatas leads an ASEAN mission to Phnom Penh to meet

Hun Sen. ASEAN's offer to help mediate a solution is rebuffed by Hun Sen on July

19.

Troops loyal to Ranariddh are pushed back in Siem Reap province, retreating to the

border enclave of O'Smach, forcing thousands of refugees across into Thailand. After

17 days on the run, Nhek Bun Chhay surfaces in O'Smach.

US journalist Nate Thayer attends a "People's Tribunal" in Anlong Veng

on July 25 where Pol Pot is publicly denounced by his former KR subordinates. It

is the first time in almost two decades that a journalist has seen Pol Pot.

The National Assembly, deadlocked for more than three months, re-opens on July 28.

Four survivors from the negotiating team that flew to Anlong Veng on Feb 14 are freed

by the Khmer Rouge on July 30. They say the other members of the team including Hem

Bun Heng were killed shortly after landing in KR territory.

August

About 1,300 monks, nuns and lay persons - led by Maha Ghosananda - undertake a

peace march through downtown Phnom Penh and gather for a meditation session at Independence

Monument on Aug 3.

The National Assembly votes to remove Ranariddh's parliamentary immunity on Aug 6

and Ung Huot is approved as the new First Prime Minister by a vote of 86 in favor,

4 against, 6 abstentions and 3 invalid votes. Two days later, the military court

issues two arrest warrants for Ranariddh.

Ranariddh-loyalist forces remain in O'Smach under intermittent attack from CPP soldiers.

Reports indicate that Nhek Bun Chhay's soldiers are cooperating with Khmer Rouge

from Anlong Veng. More than 30,000 refugees cross into Thailand through O'Smach.

DNUM says it will stay neutral.

Ranariddh and other opposition politicians including members of the KNP and part

of the divided BLDP set up the Union of Cambodian Democrats (UCD) from Bangkok.

King Sihanouk threatens from Beijing on Aug 11 to abdicate the throne if Hun Sen

agrees.

Chea Sim, Hun Sen and Ung Huot fly to Beijing to meet with the King on Aug 12. There

is confusion over whether or not the King gives his approval of Ung Huot as the new

First Prime Minister.

Opposition newspapers start re-appearing on news stands in Phnom Penh, amid allegations

they are Hun Sen-controlled. Hun Sen encourages political exiles who fled Cambodia

after the July violence to return home, but he insists that Ranariddh must face trial.

Hun Sen lashes out at human rights organizations - particularly the United Nations

Center for Human Rights - saying on Aug 18 that they should not accuse the government

of a campaign of systematic torture and executions without proof.

Former Head of State Pen Sovann emerges from hiding to leave Cambodia on Aug 22.

He is escorted to the airport by diplomats and departs for Malaysia.

On Aug 25 the UN Center for Human Rights submits a report to the government detailing

41 cases of extra-judicial killings of senior Funcinpec military leaders and soldiers

loyal to them and over 60 instances of "cremations of individuals in suspicious

circumstances" during and after the July putsch.

On Aug 25 Teng Boon Ma denies earlier press reports that he funded the July 5-6 fighting.

He says he gave $1 million to Hun Sen to lure soldiers back to their bases and stop

the looting.

Ranariddh-loyalist General Long Sereyroth says on Aug 25 that the Khmer Rouge soldiers

cooperating with his troops in the O'Smach area are "defectors".

After a six-month absence, King Sihanouk returns to Cambodia on Aug 29, flying directly

to Siem Reap, to be "far from some politicians in Phnom Penh."

Hun Sen unveils an 8-point plan to fight crime and ensure national stability which

includes seizing illegal weapons, removing illegal checkpoints, reducing the number

of bodyguards and outlawing the use of tinting on car windows.

September

Minister of Finance Keat Chhon says on Sep 1 that GNP growth estimates for 1997

are being revised downwards from 6.5% to not more than 3% and that Cambodia has effectively

lost $100m because of aid freezes.

Vietnam Airlines Flight VN815 crash lands during its approach to Pochentong Airport

on Sep 3. All but two of the 66 passengers and crew die in the accident. Bodies of

dead and dying passengers are looted by police and villagers.

Srun Vong Vannak is convicted of conspiracy to kill Hun Sen's brother-in-law, Kov

Samuth, during a trial on Sep 9. The judge sentences him to 13 years in jail.

The National Assembly rejects the government's proposed cabinet reshuffle Sep 16,

a result which MPs and observers say was less a vote for democracy and more indicative

of ongoing divisions within Funcinpec.

Backers of a global treaty to ban landmines call its adoption on Sep 17 "a gift

to the world" and say the treaty will be especially welcomed in Cambodia.

The UN Credentials Committee decides Sep 19 to leave Cambodia's seat vacant at the

UN, a serious blow to Hun Sen's efforts to maintain international recognition.

The International Monetary Fund announces its suspension of operations in Cambodia

due to the government's inability to meet structural reform criteria. Cambodia loses

$60 million in balance of payments support loans.

More than 20,000 refugees flee to Thailand from the Samlot area as fighting between

government troops and soldiers loyal to Ranariddh increases.

October

In an Oct 5 interview with Palace staff, the King says he would commit suicide

if he were not a Buddhist, because "the end of my life is full of shame, humiliation

and despair".

The Funcinpec Undersecretary of State for Defense Krouch Yoeum's body is unearthed

on Oct 15 in Kampong Speu. His hands had been cut off and his legs bound.

American journalist Nate Thayer returns to Anlong Veng where he interviews Pol Pot

and Ta Mok on Oct 16. Pol Pot expresses no remorse for the crimes against humanity

committed during his years in power. Mok denounces Pot, blaming him for hundreds

of thousands of deaths.

Self-exiled parliamentarian Son Chhay returns to Phnom Penh Oct 17, the first to

do so since the July fighting. MPs Om Radsady and Tao Seng Hour return quietly to

resume their seats at the National Assembly.

The Ministry of Planning and the UNDP release a report Oct 17 that says the AIDS

epidemic could cost Cambodia $3 billion and infect up to one million people over

the next nine years.

The CPP holds a party congress Oct 25-27. The CPP Standing Committee endorses Hun

Sen's July 5-6 military strike as "legal and correct" but urges that negotiations

be held with deposed Prince Ranariddh and his followers.

King Sihanouk departs for China on Oct 25, his efforts at mediating a solution to

the political impasse having been rebuffed by Hun Sen.

Funcinpec Deputy Chief of Espionage and Intelligence Chao Sambath's body is positively

identified in Kampong Speu by relatives on Oct 28. A UN official says the case is

"an obvious execution and torture."

Former Khmer Rouge Foreign Minister and now DNUM founder Ieng Sary returns to Phnom

Penh - his first visit since he and the rest of the Pol Pot regime's leadership fled

the capital before advancing Vietnamese forces in 1979. Sary meets with Hun Sen and

other senior officials. At an Oct 30 press conference, Sary appears to side with

Hun Sen rather than Ranariddh and his Funcinpec loyalists. Sary says that the July

5-6 fighting was not a coup d'état and pledges DNUM cooperation with the government

and army, including access through Pailin and Phnom Malai for RCAF soldiers.

November

Hun Sen makes a trip to Japan where he says on Nov 7 that Ranariddh could participate

in next year's elections if he requests and is given an amnesty by the King. Ranariddh

replies on Nov 10 that he is not guilty of any crimes and is not prepared to submit

himself to a Cambodian court.

UN human rights envoy Thomas Hammarberg says in a Nov 13 report on the state of human

rights in Cambodia to the UN General Assembly that Cambodia's Gendarmerie, a special

police unit set up with French assistance, should be disbanded if it can't be "brought

under the rule of law."

Hun Sen and Ung Huot sent a letter to Thomas Ham-marberg on Nov 18 lambasting other

aspects of his human rights report to the General Assembly, calling it "unfair,"

"unsubstantiated," and politically "biased."

Forced conscription is reported in many outlying districts of Siem Reap province

as the government beefs up force strength to maintain pressure against Ranariddh

loyalist forces in O'Smach.

The traditional Water Festival takes place in Phnom Penh Nov 15-18. Hundreds of thousands

of people, although fewer than previous years, flock to the riverside to watch the

boat races.

The UN General Assembly passes a resolution on Nov 26 which for the first time condemns

the crimes of the KR and calls for concrete actions to be taken against top leaders.

KNP leader Sam Rainsy returns to Cambodia. He proceeds directly to the park in front

of the National Assembly for a ceremony to commemorate those killed there on Mar

30.

The International Ramayana Dance Festival takes place in Siem Reap Nov 29-Dec 2.

Dance troupes from Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and India take part.

December

On Dec 1-2, 25 members of the UCD arrive in Phnom Penh to see if they can arrange

for the safe return of all other self-exiled politicians. They are led by Prince

Sisowath Sirirath, Cambodia's ambassador to the UN.

King Sihanouk returns to Phnom Penh on Dec 3, the first time the monarch had been

in the capital since the July fighting.

Sam Rainsy and Hun Sen meet for three hours at the second Prime Minister's Takhmau

residence on Dec 8. The two erstwhile enemies emerge from the meeting all smiles.

The Chinese government provides 186 military trucks and jeeps to RCAF on Dec 9 which

critics argue is part of an illegal loan that was not approved by the National Assembly.

Double amputee Tun Channareth, a Cambodian representative at the Nobel Peace Prize

ceremony in Oslo on Dec 10, receives a medal and diploma on behalf of the International

Campaign to Ban Landmines.

Sam Rainsy has an audience with King Sihanouk on Dec 12. After the meeting Rainsy

says the King will grant an amnesty to Prince Ranariddh, if he is convicted, without

waiting for anyone to request it.

The British environmental watchdog group Global Witness says at a press conference

on Dec 15 that Cambodia's stocks of saleable timber will be depleted in three to

five years unless the industry is properly regulated.

Human rights workers discover a ring of human traffickers that sends Cambodian boys

and men to Thailand where they are drugged to keep them docile. On Dec 17, 46 victims

arrive in Sihanoukville after having been rescued from the racket.

After extensive debate, the Electoral law is finally passed by the National Assembly

on Dec 19. The government and National Assembly also decide that the national polls

will be held on July 26, l998.

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