Lured with promises of work and money, Kouey Raksmey ended up
enslaved for years on a Thai fishing boat. As Leonie Sherman explains,
his story is just one of millions in the region, but with media and NGO
attention focused on the flesh trade, few seem to have
After her son had been gone a year, Sarun Ma switched
from praying for his return to praying that his soul would rest in peace. She
had heard about the trafficking of men in Thailand and given up all hope of ever
seeing him again.
Kouey Raksmey wasn't dead, but there were certainly
times during his three-year ordeal when he wished he were.
In June of
2001, at the age of 21, the former nightclub singer signed up for a 10-to-15 day
stint working on a Thai fishing boat. He was held as a slave for more than three
years before finally making his escape in August of 2004.
fear that the trafficking and exploitation of men on Thai fishing boats is
widespread, but there are no reliable statistics.
"This is an area of
trafficking that has been overlooked," says Ann Horsley, project coordinator at
the International Organization of Migration (IOM). "There's so much anecdotal
evidence, but ... the problem has not been sufficiently
Since 2001, the IOM has records of almost 100 male fishermen
who have been repatriated from Thailand, but the scale of the problem is likely
to be far greater.
Globally, an estimated 12.3 million people are
trafficked for labor with more than three quarters of that number coming from
the Asia Pacific region, according to a report released by the International
Labor Organization (ILO) in May 2005. The report estimated that less than 10
percent of labor trafficking victims in Asia and the Pacific end up in
commercial sex work, while almost two thirds of them, or 6 million people, are
coerced into working in fisheries, agriculture and other economic sectors.
The roots of such trafficking are usually lack of employment and
educational opportunities in rural communities, and poverty. According to the
2005 ILO report, most forced labor in the Mekong River region happens after
voluntary - if ill-prepared and uninformed - migration.
But behind the
scant statistics are people with harrowing stories of hardship.
left his small village near Battambang and headed across the border, drawn by
promises of good money in Thailand. The captain of a fishing boat in Phuket gave
him a job and promised they would return within 15 days.
He didn't see land
again for six months.
As Raksmey recounts his story, his first week at
sea was lost in a haze of seasickness so debilitating he couldn't eat or sleep.
The 34 Cambodians and five Thai men on the boat were forced to work long hours,
deprived of sleep, and received no pay for their exhausting labor. They ate only
the fish they caught and meager portions of rice, often resorting to eating raw
fish to avoid starvation.
When the boat finally docked six months later,
the captain, Thay Chun, told the men that they would be arrested by police and
thrown in jail as illegal immigrants if they tried to escape. Fear prompted all
the men to remain on the boat. They left for sea three days later.
captain feared the men might try to escape if they returned to Thailand, so he
took the boat to Indonesia, but hit a submerged reef en route and was forced to
return to Phuket in Thailand for repairs.
According to Kouey, a Phuket
woman named Chhay Mouy owns the boat he worked on and six others just like it.
The fleet, powered by crews of exploited laborers from Cambodia, Thailand and
Burma, often fish illegally in protected waters.
In Phuket, Chun promised
his crew members 10,000 baht each if they would stay and work for five more
months. The prospect of earning a substantial sum of money was enough to keep
all the men with the boat. The captain then gave each crew member $30, their
first payment in almost a year. Kouey used his money to buy tobacco, noodles and
a lot of coffee, which he says he needed to stay awake during the long hours of
From Phuket, the boat headed back out to Indonesia, where
they searched for fish for two months without luck. During stormy seas Kouey was
hit in the arm by a piece of flying metal that smashed bones and tore open a
long, deep gash in his right arm.
Chun accompanied him back to Thailand
on a small boat, where doctors inserted a metal plate to replace the crushed
bones in Kouey's forearm.
After six weeks in the hospital, Kouey was
released into Songkhla province in southern Thailand. He heard that his boat was
still out at sea and hitched a ride on another boat, determined to find his crew
and the 10,000 baht that he was now less than two months away from
When he found the boat again, however, he was told he would
need to work an additional five months to receive payment. Caught out at sea,
with no means of escape and no money, he was at the mercy of his captain and
remained with the boat.
The boat returned to Indonesian waters once more
and was apprehended by the coast guard for fishing in protected waters. The
owner bailed them out and the entire crew was released on the condition that
they return to Thailand.
Chun ignored the order and kept fishing in
Indonesia; soon the entire crew was behind bars, having been apprehended by the
coast guard again. After a week in jail, the owner bailed them out once more,
and this time Chun headed for Thailand.
When the boat landed in Rayong,
Chun gave each crew member $100. Kouey and his friends - all 34 of the
Cambodians - bribed Thai police officers to take them to the border. Because the
crew had bought the protection of police, Chun was powerless to bring them
Horsley, the IOM projects officer, says intervention by Thai
authorities is common.
"I've heard a number of stories of people being
transported back to the border by Thai police," says Horsley.
. . . .
While human trafficking for sexual exploitation is a hot issue that
attracts aid money, the trade in male laborers has yet to capture the attention
of donors and the general community. This leaves the men who survive the often
grim ordeals isolated and vulnerable to repeating the cycle if they manage to
escape their captors.
While some short-term programs have been developed
to try to help specific groups of recently returned men, there are currently no
preventative or rehabilitation projects in Cambodia.
A spokesman for the
Thai embassy in Phnom Penh declined to comment on the issue, and a senior
official at the Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training said that it was
difficult to protect illegal workers abroad. Neither source would speak on the
"Quite clearly, women and children are more vulnerable to
trafficking because of cultural considerations," says Shelley Preece, advisor to
the NGO Legal Services for Children and Women (LSCW). "But men are also
vulnerable, particularly once they cross the border into Thailand. They have no
money, no support system, they don't speak the language and they are often at
the mercy of unscrupulous employers."
LSCW is working on a program in
Trat, just across the Thai border from Koh Kong, aimed at helping migrants from
Cambodia who work in Thailand. They hope to educate these migrant workers about
the working conditions they are likely to find in Thailand and help them figure
out strategies to migrate safely. LSCW will use community campaigns, leaflets
and video campaigns to get the word out beginning July 15.
focusing on Trat because of limited resources," Preece says, adding that this
problem is not limited to one town or province.
. . . . .
Sowathara, a human rights monitor for LICADHO, looks at the wider context when
he thinks about ways to deal with male trafficking.
"To fix this problem
will be a big job," Sowathara says. "Education is the first part. The Ministry
of Labor should create a curriculum to educate people in rural areas about this
trafficking. Many of them cannot read, so perhaps radio can be an effective
Ultimately, though, Sowa-thara believes the government needs to
attract foreign investment and thus increase job opportunities for young men in
Cambodia. He thinks changing the economic reality of young men in Cambodia could
put an end to human trafficking across the Thai border.
"We need to
create an effective legal system, an efficient banking system, and have peaceful
political stability," Sowathara says. "Then we can create opportunities for
foreign investment and create jobs for people here."
For those who do
find themselves trafficked, getting back to Cambodia is not the end of the
ordeal. Many men face crippling debt or feel a sense of shame that prevents them
returning to their home village.
Kouey is lucky; he was welcomed back by
relatives and is currently living in the family home.
Sarun Ma, is a cheerful woman whose face lights up when she talks about the day
her son returned. "I've never been so happy in my life," she says, as she nurses
the most recent of her eight children.
"We know what he went through is
horrible ... so we try to just give him lots of time to heal. We're not rushing
him to find a job or anything," Kouey's stepfather, Leng Yon
Kouey's mother and stepfather see only positive changes in him
since his return.
"He was so feisty when he left," says Sarun Ma "Now
he's all grown up, he understands his family is poor and [he] demands less," she
pauses to laugh. "He's really helpful around the house, too!"
didn't think," adds his stepfather, Leng Yon. "Now he thinks about the future,
he thinks about making a living and getting a job." He pauses and adds, "I don't
see any negative changes; it's all been positive."
But despite the warm
welcome home, Kouey finds it difficult to move on with his life and struggles
with symptoms commonly associated with post-traumatic stress disorder.
can't stop thinking about the years of abuse on the fishing boat. He is unable
to concentrate or hold down a steady job, and he is physically weak from the
endless toil. He can't imagine getting married or having children and is afraid
that his experience will haunt him for the rest of his life.
the mistake I made every day," Kouey says. "I could have gotten so much done for
my family in those years. I wasted so much time."
Nowadays, Kouey is
embarrassed by his lean physique and scarred arms and insists that nobody will
employ him to sing on stage.
The shy man becomes more animated when
discussing what he'd like to do to his former captives.
"If the captain
and boat owner ever come to Cambodia, I will kidnap them and make them work in
the fields, so they can understand how hard I worked," he says with a rueful
grin. "... I will whip them like cows."
These bitter responses and
feelings of low self-esteem are common reactions to a traumatic event, says Dr
Sotheara Chhim, psychiatrist and managing director of the Transcultural
Psycho-social Organization, a community health NGO operating out of Phnom
"These men were like slaves, they didn't get any payment and some
were tortured severely. Many suffer from depression, post-traumatic stress
disorder and anxiety."
Sotheara's team in Phnom Penh provides debriefing
and encourages these men to talk about their problems in a supportive setting.
He teaches them coping mechanisms and some relaxation techniques. Unfortunately,
few people are aware that these services are available and free of
Kouey isn't, and he fears the long-term effects of his
"What I experienced might even be worse than what happened
during the Pol Pot regime," Kouey says softly, shaking his head.
mother, a survivor of the Khmer Rouge regime, agrees.
"During the Pol
Pot years, even when there was no food, we could catch insects to eat, but out
at sea there's nothing ... to be so isolated at sea like that ..." says Sarun
Ma, her voice trailing off.
"No matter what happens, I will love him,"
Sarun says. "I'll always love my kids, no matter what they do."