Patients who recover from novel coronavirus infections may lose their immunity to reinfection within months, according to research released on Monday that experts said could have a “significant” influence on how governments manage the pandemic.
In the first study of its kind, a team led by researchers from King’s College London examined the levels of antibodies in more than 90 confirmed virus patients and how they changed over time.
Blood tests showed even individuals with only mild Covid-19 symptoms mounted some immune response to the virus.
Of the study group, 60 per cent showed a “potent” viral response in the first few weeks after infection.
However, after three months, only 16.7 per cent had maintained high levels of Covid-19-neutralising antibodies, and after 90 days several patients had no detectable antibodies in their bloodstream.
When the body encounters an external danger such as a virus, it mobilises cells to track down and kill the culprit.
As it does so, it produces proteins known as antibodies that are programmed to target the specific antigen the body is fighting, like a key cut for a particular lock.
As long as someone has enough antibodies, they will be able to snuff out new infections, giving them immunity.
But Monday’s research suggests immunity cannot be taken for granted and may not last more than a few months, as is true with other viruses such as influenza.
Experts said the findings may change how governments plan for the next phase of the pandemic, including how they fund and organise vaccine research and development.
“This is an important study that starts to define the longer-term dynamics of the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2,” said Dr Lawrence Young, professor of Molecular Oncology at the University of Warwick, using the full name of the virus strain.
“It further emphasises the need for us to better understand what a protective immune response looks like if we are to develop an effective vaccine,” said Young, who was not involved in the research.
James Gill, an honorary Clinical Lecturer at Warwick Medical School, said the research reiterated the need for everyone to continue taking measures to mitigate the virus spreading, particularly at the start of Europe’s holiday season.
“In the same way that these patients were surprised to have antibodies to Covid-19, we should not be surprised if any protective benefit is mild, or at least transient . . . Even those with a positive antibody test – especially those who cannot account for where they may have been exposed – should continue to use caution, social distancing and appropriate mask use,” he said.