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ADB project fails fishermen

ADB project fails fishermen

Aplanned survey to check the economic pulse of fishing communities living on the

banks of Southeast Asia's largest freshwater lake - the Tonle Sap - threatens to

expose serious shortcomings in an Asian Development Bank (ADB) anti-poverty initiative.

The survey, to commence in late April, stems out of the critical view a Cambodian

NGO, Fisheries Action Coalition Team (FACT), has of a "development" project

that the Manila-based ADB launched in October 2002. The five-year-long Tonle Sap

Initiative (TSI) set out, among other things, to improve the lives of the communities

that depend on the lake's fish for their livelihood.

But four years later, the ADB's flagship "pro-poor development initiative"

in one of the region's poorest countries is still stuck in the mud of basic details.

"Most of the people living around the Tonle Sap still don't know what this project

is really about. Some only have heard of it by name,'' says Raingsey Pen, project

leader of Tonle Sap Watch at the Phnom Penh-based FACT.

This ignorance is due to a lack of participation by the people from the beginning

of this project, he said in an interview.

"NGOs who have been monitoring this initiative have complained to the ADB that

most of the documents have not been translated into the local language and are only

available in English.''

The information gulf between the bank and the Tonle Sap's poor has been noted by

Oxfam, the international development agency.

"There is a general lack of awareness about the TSI,'' says Jessica Rosien,

who wrote a study on the Tonle Sap lake last year for Oxfam's Australia office. ''Can

the ADB save the Tonle Sap from poverty? There has been too little involvement of

the people who were supposed to benefit,'' she told IPS.

The ADB concedes that some of the criticisms by NGOs are relevant.

"We have heard some of the concerns by NGOs and they are valid,'' Mahfuz Ahmed,

senior agriculture economist at the bank, said in an interview from Manila. "Running

this project from Phnom Penh is not easy. People's participation is a core feature

of this project. We have got to be more aggressive.''

Even at a formal meeting this month in Phnom Penh between the regional bank and Cambodian

government officials, the ADB let slip the difficulty it was facing in being more

inclusive just as the TSI enters its final year.

"There is a risk that some of the poor and marginalized could be increasingly

left behind,'' Urooj Malik, director of the agriculture, environment and natural

resources division at the bank, said during the mid-March forum. "It is vital

to involve them more in the process of formulating policies designed to improve their


The Tonle Sap, which receives water from the Mekong river, plays a central part in

feeding Cambodia, with its rich supply of freshwater fish. Fishing on this lake,

which expands from 2,500 square kilometers to 13,000 km2 during the May-October flood

season, provides food and incomes to about one million Cambodians. The poor living

along the banks of the Tonle Sap are part of the nearly 40 percent of Cambodia's

13.8 million population living below the poverty line.

These were the communities that the bank hoped to aid as part of the TSI. This initiative

aimed to be "a partnership of organizations and people working to meet the poverty

and environment challenges of the Tonle Sap,'' states the ADB on its website.

In July 2003, the bank added the "Tonle Sap Basin Strategy" to the TSI

as part of its broader Cambodia country program to meet a 2007 deadline. This was

deemed "consistent with ADB's water policy and worldwide trend towards managing

land, water and biotic resources within a framework of basin units,'' the bank says.

In fact, the second pillar of the TSI was singled out as the "Tonle Sap Sustainable

Livelihoods Project," which was estimated to cost $19.7 million, with $15 million

coming from the Asian Development Fund and $4.7 million from the Finnish government.

The project aimed to improve the economy of the fishing communities by assuring the

locals a role in choosing, planning and managing small programs for their benefit.

Yet, as the Oxfam report revealed, public participation is "low in proportion

to the number of projects of the ADB's Tonle Sap Basin portfolio.'' Further, it is

also "difficult to trace whether and how the recommendations from community

members were or were not incorporated into the final project design.''

And for ADB watchdogs like FACT, nothing conveys the bank's distance from its intended

beneficiaries more than the departure from its original promise of creating new fishing

communities in addition to strengthening existing ones.

"The project sought to improve the fishing communities by establishing 500 more

around the Tonle Sap,'' Pen says. ''But until now we have not seen a new fishing

community that was promised.'' -IPS.


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