Since Cambodia opened up to the free market in the past decade, the number of
English schools has mushroomed. Many Phnom Penh streets are strung with colorful
advertisements designed to tempt young people into the classrooms.
For students in Ngeth Darith's TOEFL class learning English can open doors to a brighter future.
Street 164, south of Baktuk Primary School, is crowded from
dawn till dusk with hundreds of young students who believe English is the
younger generat-ion's best bet.
Fifteen-year-old secondary school student
Prom Rithy is hopeful that learning English will help him to find a good job in
a private company once he has finished his studies. Rithy is not alone: the past
few years have seen a surge in the number of students learning English as well
as schools that provide the service.
Rithy started learning English last
year. He found that the standard available at school was not good enough, so he
now spends an extra two hours each day studying the language
"Better human resources are needed for Cambodia's
development," he says, "so I decided to study English in the hope that I will
find a good job in a company when I have finished."
In 1996, the Ministry
of Education, Youth and Sports (MoE) included English and French into the
secondary school curriculum starting from Grade 7 (aged from about 14 years).
Students can choose which they would prefer to learn. Statistics show that this
year almost 37,000 Grade 9 students took the English examination, while French
attracted around half as many.
George Tailor, a former consultant who was
involved in an MoE project to train English language teachers, says the increase
in the numbers of students keen to take English lessons has surprised even
He says in 1996 around 7,000 Grade 9 students sat the French
language exam, with 25,000 students sitting for English. That means the number
studying English has increased by half in only five years. Tailor has noticed a
proliferation of English schools in both Phnom Penh and the
"There has been a big change," he says. "Students are
interested in learning English for social and cultural reasons and also for job
opportunities. I think that learning English will grow even more than it has
already. English will become increasingly popular and successful."
has several reasons for the growth in numbers learning English. First was
Cambodia's admission to the English-medium Asean group in 1999. Second, he says,
is that it is seen as fashionable language given the cultural influence of
foreign countries such as the US and Australia. Third, those who speak English
can more easily find jobs in an increasingly competitive work
Ngeth Dareth, 38, has taught English since 1992 after
returning from a refugee camp in Malaysia. He found that teaching English earned
him a good living, which gave him the confidence to quit two jobs, the first
with UNICEF and the second with the Cambodian Mine Action Center.
stands for eight hours a day in his classroom nearby Baktuk Primary School
teaching English grammar, writing skills and translation. A microphone helps
project his voice across benches filled with dozens of students who pay 1,000
riel an hour to crowd into his classes.
Sean Sam Ath, a 25-year-old monk,
has studied English since 1998. Sam Ath says that learning English proves useful
when interpreting the teachings of the Buddha.
"When I have a good
command of English, I would like to interpret Buddha's scripture in English so
foreigners can understand it," he says.
Of course, more students require
more teachers: MoE statistics for 2000/2001 show that there are now 728 English
teachers compared with 331 French language teachers at the secondary level. The
number of Grade 7 to Grade 12 students to whom they teach English now stands at
However, it appears the demand for English teachers is
outstripping the supply. Dr Suporte Prasertsri, head of Unesco's education
program, says there are not enough teachers to supply every school.
the Fifth International Conference on Language and Development held in the
capital recently, Suporte said that the standard of English taught by many
native Khmer speakers was not good enough; he suggested that the country take on
500 native speakers of English to meet the demand.
Like Tailor, Suporte
notices that the desire of young Cambodians to learn computing skills had driven
the demand for English. He adds that since Cambodia joined Asean, he has also
noticed more demand by government officials to study English.
the Asean countries hold a lot of meetings in many fields. These meetings are
held in English, so government officials should learn more English to absorb the
information," he says.
Siv Seng Han, deputy chief of planning at the
Higher Studies Department at the MoE, says that despite booming numbers of
English students, they could not avoid learning French as many textbooks were
only available in that language.
Moreover, he says, the French government
has provided funding to some university departments, including medicine,
engineering, economics and law; that funding is conditional on those courses
being taught in French.
"During the 1960s we learned French and worked
with French people," says Seng Han, who speaks both French and English. "Now
people tend to learn English because they want to find jobs with a foreign
Mao Sokan, director of the Institute of Foreign Languages, says
that around 300 English language students at his schools were on Cambodian
government scholarships, while the rest paid $450 a year. Almost 1,000 students
are studying for a Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree in English, while the French
equivalent has 250 students.
Sokan says that ten years ago only 15
students took a BA in English. Four hundred and fifty now hold the degree.
However, he cautions that learning only English is insufficient and says
students should study other skills to ensure good jobs.
"In former times
people were arrested for learning English," he says. "I think that in the future
Cambodians will use English more than French - after all, that is the language
used for communication in other countries in the region."