Logo of Phnom Penh Post newspaper Phnom Penh Post - Shades of Victor Hugo, Shakespeare and Joan of Arc

Shades of Victor Hugo, Shakespeare and Joan of Arc

Shades of Victor Hugo, Shakespeare and Joan of Arc

shades.jpg
shades.jpg

Cao Dai's eclectic pantheon

 

photos, Ken Opprann

Vo Quang Minh, temple chief, second from left, leads prayers in the Cao Dai temple off Mao Tse Tung Boulevard in Phnom Penh. The temple is where the body of Pham Cong Tac, Defender of the Faith, remains, waiting for the day when the political climate in Vietnam allows its return to Tay Ninh. Below, a young worshiper lights incense.

Tucked between two glitzy five-story glass-fronted shops on Mao Tse Tung Boulevard

is a narrow lane with faded-orange walls. Slip along the neatly tiled path between

these temples of consumerism and the noise of the city swiftly fades.

Saffron, turquoise and cardinal-red flags mark the entrance to a different kind of

temple: in the midst of Phnom Penh's materialist mayhem is the secret, near-forgotten

world of Cao Dai - an 80-year-old religious movement that claims to enshrine the

fundamental truths of all creeds.

Espousing vegetarianism, equality of the sexes, meditation and tolerance of all the

world's religions, Cao Dai's teachings are said to come from divine messages, often

written in verse, received in séances by spiritual mediums.

It seems the ultimate product of Western New-Age pick-and-mix spirituality: in its

delightfully disparate pantheon of gods, Buddha hovers next to Shakespeare, Joan

of Arc is revered as much Jesus, and Victor Hugo is worshiped alongside Lao Tse,

the presumed founder of Taoism. But this superlatively syncretic religion is no newfangled

spiritual concoction; its roots lie in 1920s French Indochina.

And the tiny Cao Dai temple in Phnom Penh has a far larger significance than its

size indicates. The body of one of the most famous and controversial figures in Cao

Dai, Pham Cong Tac, lies here in an ornate tomb bedecked with colorful plastic flowers.

Pham Cong Tac was the Ho Phap, or "Defender of the Faith," and the medium

who received the largest number of the spirit messages that now constitute the Cao

Dai scriptures, said Dr Janet Hoskins of the University of Southern California.

"Pham Cong Tac led the Tay Ninh church [the first and main temple of Cao Dai]

in a dramatic expansion that converted several million people [in southern Vietnam]

between 1926 and 1956, [then] about 20 percent of the population," she said.

"He held séances both in Tay Ninh and in Cambodia, and it was at the

Phnom Penh temple that the spirit of Victor Hugo first spoke to Caodaists; for this

reason Hugo is the head of the overseas mission."

Founded in 1926 in Vietnam, the philosophy and moral code of the Caodaists developed

from a melding of the influential schools of thought of the day: Buddhism, Taoism,

Christianity, and Confucianism. The name Cao Dai, which means High Abode, or Roofless

Tower, was given as a symbolic name of the Supreme Being.

King Norodom

A year after its official establishment in Vietnam, Cao Dai reached Cambodia. In

1927 Pham Cong Tac received permission from King Norodom to set up a Cao Dai temple

in Cambodia. Initially based in Chamkar Morn district in Phnom Penh, they moved to

the more centrally located plot of land off Mao Tse Tung Boulevard where they remain,

said the director of the temple, Vo Quang Minh.

"In 1934 the government gave us a 60 by 180 meter plot of land for our temple,"

he said. "But when the Khmer Rouge came we, like everyone else, were forced

to evacuate the city. By the time we got back, the land around the temple had been

claimed by others - now we only have a 25 by 25 meter plot of land."

Apart from persecution under the Khmer Rouge - a period during which observance of

any religion was banned - Cao Dai has fared better in Cambodia than in Vietnam, where

both the movement and its leaders have been subject to government repression.

"Pham Cong Tac was a political figure in Vietnam, very involved in the struggle

against the French for independence," Hoskins said. "He was arrested and

deported in 1941, and spent five years on the Comoro Islands off Madagascar. His

associates managed to 'cut a deal' with the French, promising not to attack French

forces any more if Pham Cong Tac and five other religious leaders were freed and

returned to Vietnam."

Once free, he attended the 1954 Geneva Peace Conference as the head of a group of

non-communist nationalists, and was compared by some, including the American writer

Virginia Thompson, to Mahatma Gandhi in the sense of being a nationalist leader who

combined religious ideas with political ones. This praise was, however, to prove

his downfall in Vietnam, and explains why this key figure has been buried in Phnom

Penh.

"The US-supported Diem government did not want a neutral political figure on

the scene, and in 1956 they tried to arrest Pham Cong Tac and took over the Cao Dai

militia which had defended the Holy See in Tay Ninh," Hoskins said. "Tac

fled to Phnom Penh, and stayed there until he died in 1959."

Controversy

At the Cao Dai temple in Phnom Penh there remains a copy of Tac's letter to Prince

Norodom Sihanouk, in French, in which he explains he wishes to remain in Cambodia

until Vietnam is "united, peaceful and neutral."

Although Vietnam is now united and peaceful, as a communist state it is not yet considered

"neutral," Hoskins said.

"There is a lot of controversy about when, if ever, Pham Cong Tac's body can

be returned to Vietnam," she said. "The Vietnamese government is opening

up a lot about religion now, but most Caodaists do not feel that they have religious

freedom."

However, the sect's most important temple, in Tay Ninh, Vietnam, is an active center

for Caodaists, where adherents attend religious services regularly. Thousands of

tourists also visit the temple annually to admire its ornate architecture.

In Cambodia, where over 95 percent of the population is Buddhist, Cao Dai is a small

yet flourishing minority religion with about ten temples spread across the country.

Just 200 families, all but ten Vietnamese, regularly attend the services at the Phnom

Penh temple, held four times every day at 6am, midday, 6pm and midnight, Minh said.

He said they have never suffered any anti-Vietnamese discrimination, and the government

has been nothing but supportive.

"The Cambodian government protects Cao Dai," he said. "If we need

help we ask them - our religion is legal here, we have discussed it with the government."

Cao Dai has gained some local support on account of the charitable work it carries

out in Phnom Penh. If people cannot afford coffins for their dead relatives, the

Cao Dai temple will provide one: since 1993, they have handed out more than 1,000

of their plain wooden coffins.

Despite an eclectic pantheon of gods and a reliance on spiritual mediums for the

revelation of their core texts, Cao Dai followers at the Phnom Penh temple do not

participate in seances, Minh said. Seances are not illegal in Cambodia, but they

are in Vietnam.

"The government of Cambodia is supposedly more 'open' about some things [like

spirit seances] than the government of Vietnam, which has forbidden them," Hoskins

said. "They do occur secretly, of course, and are an essential part of Caodaist

practice."

Cao Dai's ability to operate freely in Cambodia reflects the government's commitment

to religious toleration, said Sun Kim Hun, Secretary of State at the Ministry of

Cults and Religious Affairs.

"There are very many different religions in Cambodia," he said. "This

is not a problem as we have no religious discrimination at all - if people want to

be Buddhist, fine; Islamist, fine; Christian, fine - it is all ok with us."

 

MOST VIEWED

  • PM to vet NY holiday dates

    The Ministry of Economy and Finance submitted a letter to Prime Minister Hun Sen asking him to formally set a five-day national holiday from August 17-21 to make up for the Khmer New Year holiday in April that was postponed. Finance minister Aun Pornmoniroth sent

  • Cambodia rejects UN rights claim

    Cambodia's Permanent Mission to the UN Office in Geneva on Friday hit back at David Kaye, the UN special rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression after he raised concerns over the repression of free speech and

  • Snaring may spawn diseases

    The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) has warned that snaring of animals has become a crisis that poses a serious risk to wildlife in Southeast Asia and could spawn the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. Its July 9 report entitled Silence of the Snares: Southeast Asia’

  • Ex-party leader, gov’t critic named as secretary of state

    A former political party leader known for being critical of the government has been appointed secretary of state at the Ministry of Rural Development, a royal decree dated July 9 said. Sourn Serey Ratha, the former president of the Khmer Power Party (KPP), told The Post

  • Residence cards set for over 80,000 immigrants

    The Ministry of Interior plans to grant residence cards to more than 80,000 immigrants to better keep track of them. The ministry announced the plan on July 10, following the results of an immigration census. “An inter-ministerial committee and many operational working groups have been set up

  • Kingdom produces PPE gear

    Medical supplies from Cambodia have been donated to member countries of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to assist in the fight against Covid-19, said an ADB report published on July 9. The report stated that the supplies were donated as a response to global efforts to

  • Kingdom, US vow stronger ties

    At an academic forum on Saturday to celebrate 70 years of Cambodia-US diplomatic ties, Cambodian researchers and officials expressed hope of encouraging US investments and for that country to deepen and improve its bilateral relations. Held at the Royal Academy of Cambodia, it reviewed the past 70

  • Fifteen Cambodians from Saudi get Covid-19

    The Ministry of Health on Sunday confirmed 15 more imported cases of Covid. The 15 men ‒ all Cambodian aged 21 to 33 ‒ arrived from Saudi Arabia on Friday via a connecting flight in Malaysia. They were travelling with 79 other passengers, three of them women. The ministry said 80 of the

  • Ministry requests school opening

    The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport on Thursday said it would request a decision from Prime Minister Hun Sen to allow a small number of schools to reopen next month. Ministry spokesman Ros Soveacha said if the request is granted, higher-standard schools will reopen

  • Kingdom eyes India FTA, China deal set for August

    Cambodia is studying the possibility of establishing a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) with India to open a new market with the second-largest regional economy. This comes as an FTA with China is scheduled to be signed next month while similar negotiations with South Korea